Increased placental trophoblast inclusions in placenta accreta
Introduction: Trophoblast inclusions (Tls) are often found in placentas of genetically abnormal gestations. Although best documented in placentas from molar pregnancies and chromosomal aneuploidy, TIs are also associated with more subtle genetic abnormalities, and possibly autism. Less than 3% of nonaneuploid, non-accreta placentas have Tls. We hypothesize that placental genetics may play a role in the development of placenta accreta and aim to study Tls as a potential surrogate indicator of abnormal placental genetics. Methods: Forty cases of placenta accreta in the third trimester were identified in a search of the medical records at one institution. Forty two third trimester control placentas were identified by a review of consecutively received single gestation placentas with no known genetic abnormalities and no diagnosis of placenta accreta. Results: Forty percent of cases with placenta accreta demonstrated Tls compared to 2.4% of controls. More invasive placenta accretas (increta and percreta) were more likely to demonstrate TIs than accreta (47% versus 20%). Prior cesarean delivery was more likely in accreta patients than controls (67% versus 9.5%). Discussion: Placenta accreta is thought to be the result of damage to the endometrium predisposing to abnormal decidualization and invasive trophoblast growth into the myometrium. However, the etiology of accreta is incompletely understood with accreta frequently occurring in women without predisposing factors and failing to occur in predisposed patients. Conclusion: This study has shown that Tls are present at increased rates in cases of PA. Further studies are needed to discern what underlying pathogenic mechanisms are in common between abnormal placentation and the formation of Tls. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
School of Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynecology