Idiopathic multifocal choroiditis/punctate inner choroidopathy with acute photoreceptor loss or dysfunction out of proportion to clinically visible lesions
PURPOSE: To report acute/subacute vision loss and paracentral scotomata in patients with idiopathic multifocal choroiditis/punctate inner choroidopathy due to large zones of acute photoreceptor attenuation surrounding the chorioretinal lesions. METHODS: Multimodal imaging case series. RESULTS: Six women and 2 men were included (mean age, 31.5 +/- 5.8 years). Vision ranged from 20/20-1 to hand motion (mean, 20/364). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated extensive attenuation of the external limiting membrane, ellipsoid and interdigitation zones, adjacent to the visible multifocal choroiditis/punctate inner choroidopathy lesions. The corresponding areas were hyperautofluorescent on fundus autofluorescence and were associated with corresponding visual field defects. Full-field electroretinogram (available in three cases) showed markedly decreased cone/rod response, and multifocal electroretinogram revealed reduced amplitudes and increased implicit times in two cases. Three patients received no treatment, the remaining were treated with oral corticosteroids (n = 4), oral acyclovir/valacyclovir (n = 2), intravitreal/posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetate (n = 3), and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (n = 2). Visual recovery occurred in only three cases of whom two were treated. Varying morphological recovery was found in six cases, associated with decrease in hyperautofluorescence on fundus autofluorescence. CONCLUSION: Multifocal choroiditis/punctate inner choroidopathy can present with transient or permanent central photoreceptor attenuation/loss. This presentation is likely a variant of multifocal choroiditis/punctate inner choroidopathy with chorioretinal atrophy. Associated changes are best evaluated using multimodal imaging.
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