Surgical treatment of head and neck port-wine stains by means of a staged zonal approach
Plast Reconstr Surg
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with capillary malformations (port-wine stains) develop soft-tissue and bony hypertrophy leading to gross facial asymmetry and functional deficits in vision, breathing, speech, and feeding. The authors describe and illustrate a surgical approach for the treatment of these malformations with restoration of facial symmetry and contour based on facial subunits. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective case series of patients from 2004 to 2011 presenting for primary evaluation and treatment to a tertiary referral center specializing in vascular anomalies. The medical records and photographs of patients with facial capillary malformations and soft-tissue hypertrophy were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 160 patients who presented with the diagnosis of facial capillary malformation/port-wine stain, 96 (60 percent) had soft-tissue hypertrophy in one or more dermatomes resulting in facial asymmetry. Only 4.4 percent of patients had solely V1 involvement, 38.8 percent had V2 involvement, and 15.6 percent had V3 involvement. The technique and incisions used for each facial zone are described in detail. In all cases, incisions were placed along existing boundaries of facial subunits. Serial pulsed-dye laser treatments were also performed. CONCLUSIONS: Sixty percent of patients with facial capillary malformation experience soft-tissue hypertrophy with or without bony remodeling, and surgical correction is required. The authors describe a staged surgical treatment for these patients based on a subunit and zonal approach to the face. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.