Volume-Rendering Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2
PURPOSE: To evaluate the vascular structure of eyes with macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2) using volume-rendered optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 14 consecutive patients (20 eyes) with MacTel2 who had a signal strength score >/=55 and could maintain fixation during the scan process. METHODS: The eyes were scanned using optical coherence tomography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation techniques to derive flow information. Data were extracted and used to create volume-rendered images of the retinal vasculature that could be rotated about 3 different axes for evaluation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive appraisal of the vascular abnormalities associated with MacTel2. RESULTS: Vessels posterior to the outer boundary of the deep retinal plexus were secondary to retinal thinning, vascular invasion, or a combination of both. These vessels had the same shape and distribution as the late staining seen during conventional fluorescein angiography. Lateral contraction in the temporal macula in 5 eyes created an appearance of vessels radiating from a central locus, which was the site of a right angle vein. Loss of macular tissue as part of the disease process led to a central amalgamation of the inner vascular plexus and the deep vascular plexus, which appeared to be in a state of decline. Subretinal neovascularization originated from the retinal circulation but involved not only the subretinal space but also could infiltrate the remaining, thinned, retina. CONCLUSIONS: Volume rendering of OCTA information preserves the 3-dimensional relationships among retinal vascular layers and provides opportunities to visualize retinal vascular abnormalities in unprecedented detail. The retinal vascular leakage and invasion in MacTel2 may arise as a consequence of loss of control with depletion of Muller cells and exposure of the remaining retinal vessels to the more hypoxic environment near the inner segments of the photoreceptors.
School of Medicine