Pain in chronic kidney disease: a scoping review
There is increasing international attention in efforts to integrate palliative care principles, including pain and symptom management, into the care of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the extent, range, and nature of research activity around pain in CKD with the goal of (i) identifying gaps in current research knowledge; (ii) guiding future research; and (iii) creating a rich database of literature to serve as a foundation of more detailed reviews in areas where the data are sufficient. This review will specifically address the epidemiology of pain in CKD, analgesic use, pharmacokinetic data of analgesics, and the management of pain in CKD. It will also capture the aspects that pertain to specific pain syndromes in CKD such as peripheral neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, joint pain, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
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