Clinical experience with percutaneous left ventricular transapical access for interventions in structural heart defects: A safe access and secure exit
Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the safety of percutaneous direct left ventricular access for interventional procedures. Background: Experience with percutaneous access of the left ventricle (LV) for interventional procedures has been limited and associated with a high percentage of major complications. We report our clinical experience with percutaneous direct LV access for interventional procedures. Methods: Between March 2008 and December 2010, there were 32 percutaneous transapical punctures in 28 consecutive patients (16 males, mean age 68.2 ± 10.8 years). The delivery sheath sizes ranged from 5- to 12-F. Results: All transapical punctures were successfully performed, and safe closure of the access sites was achieved. Total procedural time was 153.6 ± 49.4 min for procedures converted from conventional approaches to a transapical approach, 129.5 ± 29.6 min for the transapical approach with trans-septal rail support, and 109.3 ± 41.4 min for the planned transapical approach. Fluoroscopy time was 61.3 ± 26.1 min, 29.7 ± 20.8 min, and 27.4 ± 21.4 min, respectively. Fluoroscopy time for closure of mitral paravalvular leaks was reduced by 35%, from 42.6 ± 29.9 min to 27.4 ± 15.6 min. Complications were observed in 2 patients (7.1%). Conclusions: With meticulous planning, transapical puncture is safe. The transapical access provides a more direct approach to the LV targets for intervention and leads to a significant decrease in the procedural and fluoroscopy times. Device closure of the direct LV access site is a reliable and safe method of hemostasis. Placement of a closure device should be considered if sheaths larger than 5-F are used. Although we used this technique only for paravalvular leak and LV pseudoaneurysm closure, it may have application for other percutaneous structural heart interventions. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.