Effect of gender and race on outcomes in dialysis-dependent patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention
We aimed to determine whether gender and race are independently associated with in-hospital major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and hospital length of stay in chronic dialysis patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Whether gender or race independently influences the outcomes in patients undergoing PCI is not fully understood. The study population included 474 chronic dialysis patients who underwent PCI at 4 New York State teaching hospitals from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2007. The primary end point of the study was the composite of in-hospital MACCE, defined as all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. The secondary end points included in-hospital all-cause mortality and hospital length of stay. Of the 474 chronic dialysis patients, 172 (36.3%) were women. The women undergoing PCI were more likely to be black or Hispanic and had a greater left ventricular ejection fraction. The women had significantly greater rates of in-hospital MACCE (5.8% vs 1.7%, p = 0.013) and mortality (4.7% vs 0.7%, p = 0.006). No significant difference in the MACCE rates was found between the black and white patients (4.9% vs 2.2%, respectively, p = 0.125), although black patients showed a trend toward greater in-hospital mortality (4.1% vs 1.2%, p = 0.069). After adjustment for the baseline clinical and procedural characteristics, female gender was an independent predictor of MACCE (odds ratio 7.41, 95% confidence interval 1.81 to 30.27) and all-cause mortality (odds ratio 13.23, 95% confidence interval 1.55 to 113.25), but race was not. No significant difference in the hospital length of stay was observed by either gender or race. In conclusion, in this study, female gender was independently associated with a greater risk of MACCE and all-cause mortality in dialysis-dependent patients undergoing PCI. Although being a black woman was an independent predictor of mortality, race per se was not an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.