ICD Lead Extraction
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is a lifesaving technology that has undergone tremendous development. Transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead was a major breakthrough, allowing for expanded indications. With expanded cardiovascular implantable electronic device use and indications for device therapy, complications have increased. More frequent device system revisions for complications and system upgrade and/or lead malfunction and longer patient life expectancies have mandated a paradigm shift toward premeditated lead management strategies from implant to removal or replacement. The decision to extract a lead in any patient must involve an individualized process considering all patient variables and the experience and outcomes of the extraction program. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.