Continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring using steerable guide catheter to optimize mitraclip transcatheter mitral valve repair: A multicenter, proof-of-concept study
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Objectives: We report our multicenter experience on continuous hemodynamic monitoring using exclusively the steerable guide catheter (SGC) during MitraClip repair. Background: Left atrial pressure (LAP) and V-wave are useful to evaluate MitraClip repair but no simple method of continuous monitoring exists. Methods: From 11/2016 to 8/2017, 74 patients from four centers with symptomatic moderate-severe to severe mitral regurgitation (MR), underwent MitraClip NT repair with continuous hemodynamic monitoring via the SGC. Real-time LAP/V-wave changes were compared with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). When mitral stenosis was suspected, transmitral gradients were verified by invasive hemodynamics. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were determined. Results: Mean age was 78 ± 10 years and STS score 9.1 ± 11.0%. Pathology included leaflet prolapse/flail (45%), restriction (35%), and mixed (20%). Number of clips averaged 1.7 ± 0.7 per case. There was a significant reduction in LAP (21 ± 10 to 15 ± 7 mmHg, P < 0.0001) and V-wave(37 ± 19 to 24 ± 10 mmHg, P < 0.0001) post MitraClip, but the decrease was less in patients with atrial fibrillation (P < 0.05). Transmitral gradient significantly increased from 2.0 ± 1.2 to 4.0 ± 1.7 mmHg (P < 0.0001). Paradoxical increases in LAP and V-wave despite MR reduction were observed in three cases requiring MitraClip repositioning or retrieval to avoid stenosis. Follow-up averaged 5.0 ± 2.9 months and was 100% complete. KCCQ improvement was significant and MR reduction to <1+ was 67% and <2+ was 93% at 30 days. Conclusions: Continuous hemodynamic monitoring using the SGC complements TEE to assess and optimize MitraClip repair in real-time. Further validation is necessary but this feature may be part of future MitraClip and other transcatheter mitral repair systems.