Guidance Document for Hepatic Hemangioma (Infantile and Congenital) Evaluation and Monitoring
© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Objective: To define the types of hepatic hemangiomas using the updated International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies classification and to create a set of guidelines for their diagnostic evaluation and monitoring. Study design: We used a rigorous, transparent consensus protocol defined by an approved methodology, with input from multiple pediatric experts in vascular anomalies from hematology-oncology, surgery, pathology, radiology, and gastroenterology. Results: In the first section, we define the subtypes of hepatic hemangiomas based on the clinical course, histology, and radiologic characteristics. We recommend against using the term “hemangioma” for any vascular malformations affecting the liver or any hypervascular tumors that are not characterized by the approved definitions. We recommend against using the term “hemangioendothelioma” for infantile or congenital hemangioma. The following 2 sections dedicated to infantile hepatic hemangioma and to congenital hepatic hemangioma individually describe these subtypes in further detail, including complications to be considered during monitoring and respectively recommended screening evaluations. Conclusions: Although institutional variations may exist for specific clinical details, a clear understanding of the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas affecting children and the possible complications that require screening during the monitoring period should be standard. As children with hepatic hemangiomas are managed by different medical and surgical specialties, we offer an expert opinion multidisciplinary consensus based on current literature and on data extracted from the liver hemangioma registry.
School of Medicine