Left Ventricular Entropy Is a Novel Predictor of Arrhythmic Events in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy Receiving Defibrillators for Primary Prevention
© 2019 Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of left ventricular (LV) entropy, a novel measure of myocardial heterogeneity, for predicting cardiovascular events in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Background: Current risk stratification for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with DCM is imprecise. LV entropy is a measure of myocardial heterogeneity derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging that assesses the probability distribution of pixel signal intensities in the LV myocardium. Methods: A registry-based cohort of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients with DCM had their LV entropy, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) presence, and LGE mass measured on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were followed from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement for arrhythmic events (appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, ventricular arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac death), end-stage heart failure events (cardiac death, transplantation, or ventricular assist device placement), and all-cause mortality. Results: One hundred thirty patients (mean age 55 years, 83% men, LV ejection fraction 29%, mean LV entropy 5.58 ± 0.72, LGE present in 57%) were followed for a median of 3.2 years. Eighteen (14.0%) experienced arrhythmic events, 17 (13.1%) experienced end-stage heart failure events, and 7 (5.4%) died. LV entropy provided substantial improvement of predictive ability when added to a model containing clinical variables and LGE mass (hazard ratio: 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 8.82; p = 0.007; net reclassification index = 0.345, p = 0.04). For end-stage heart failure events, LV entropy did not improve the model containing clinical variables and LGE mass (hazard ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 5.28; p = 0.14). Automated LV entropy measurement has excellent intraobserver (mean difference 0.04) and interobserver (mean difference 0.03) agreement. Conclusions: Automated LV entropy measurement is a novel marker for risk stratification toward ventricular arrhythmia in patients with DCM.