Left Ventricular Entropy Is a Novel Predictor of Arrhythmic Events in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy Receiving Defibrillators for Primary Prevention

R. G. Muthalaly
R. Y. Kwong
R. M. John
R. J. van der Geest
Q. Tao
B. Schaeffer
S. Tanigawa
T. Nakamura
K. Kaneko
U. B. Tedrow
W. G. Stevenson
L. M. Epstein MD, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
S. Kapur
P. C. Zei
B. A. Koplan


© 2019 Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of left ventricular (LV) entropy, a novel measure of myocardial heterogeneity, for predicting cardiovascular events in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Background: Current risk stratification for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with DCM is imprecise. LV entropy is a measure of myocardial heterogeneity derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging that assesses the probability distribution of pixel signal intensities in the LV myocardium. Methods: A registry-based cohort of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients with DCM had their LV entropy, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) presence, and LGE mass measured on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were followed from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement for arrhythmic events (appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, ventricular arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac death), end-stage heart failure events (cardiac death, transplantation, or ventricular assist device placement), and all-cause mortality. Results: One hundred thirty patients (mean age 55 years, 83% men, LV ejection fraction 29%, mean LV entropy 5.58 ± 0.72, LGE present in 57%) were followed for a median of 3.2 years. Eighteen (14.0%) experienced arrhythmic events, 17 (13.1%) experienced end-stage heart failure events, and 7 (5.4%) died. LV entropy provided substantial improvement of predictive ability when added to a model containing clinical variables and LGE mass (hazard ratio: 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 8.82; p = 0.007; net reclassification index = 0.345, p = 0.04). For end-stage heart failure events, LV entropy did not improve the model containing clinical variables and LGE mass (hazard ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 5.28; p = 0.14). Automated LV entropy measurement has excellent intraobserver (mean difference 0.04) and interobserver (mean difference 0.03) agreement. Conclusions: Automated LV entropy measurement is a novel marker for risk stratification toward ventricular arrhythmia in patients with DCM.