Longitudinal low density lipoprotein cholesterol goal achievement and cardiovascular outcomes among adult patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: The CASCADE FH registry
© 2019 [The Author/The Authors] Background and aims: There are limited data from the US on outcomes of patients in specialty care for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Methods: CASCADE FH Registry data were analyzed to assess longitudinal changes in medication usage, in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke or transient ischemic attack) in adults with FH followed in US specialty clinics. Results: The cohort consisted of 1900 individuals (61% women, 87% Caucasian), with mean age of 56 ± 15 years, 37% prevalence of ASCVD at enrollment, mean pretreatment LDL-C 249 ± 68 mg/dl, mean enrollment LDL-C 145 mg/dl and 93% taking lipid lowering therapy. Over follow up of 20 ± 11 months, lipid lowering therapy use increased (mean decrease in LDL-C of 32 mg/dl (p < 0.001)). Only 48% of participants achieved LDL-C < 100 mg/dl and 22% achieved LDL-C < 70 mg/dl; ASCVD at enrollment was associated with greater likelihood of goal achievement. MACE event rates were almost 6 times higher among patients with prior ASCVD compared to those without (4.6 vs 0.8/100 patient years). Also associated with incident MACE were markers of FH severity and conventional ASCVD risk factors. Conclusions: With care in FH specialized clinics, LDL-C decreased, but LDL-C persisted >100 mg/dl in 52% of patients. High ASCVD event rates suggest that adults with FH warrant designation as having an ASCVD risk equivalent. Earlier and more aggressive therapy of FH is needed to prevent ASCVD events.