Advances in the diagnosis and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus (with videos)
© 2019 Background and Aims: Most patients diagnosed with esophageal adenocarcinoma do not carry a known diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus (BE), suggesting that an improved approach to screening may potentially be of benefit. The use of dysplasia as a biomarker and random biopsy protocols for its detection has limitations. In addition, detecting and appropriately classifying dysplasia in patients with known BE can be difficult. Methods: This document reviews several technologies with a recently established or potential role in the diagnosis and/or surveillance of BE as well as risk stratification for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Results: Two technologies were reviewed for imaging or tissue sampling: (1) wide-area transepithelial sampling and (2) volumetric laser endomicroscopy. Four technologies were reviewed for molecular and biomarker technologies for diagnosis and risk stratification: (1) Cytosponge, (2) mutational load, (3) fluorescence in situ hybridization, and (4) immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Several technologies discussed in this document may improve dysplasia detection in BE in a wide-field manner. Moreover, the addition of different biomarkers may aid in enhanced risk stratification to optimize approaches to surveillance or treatment for patients with BE.
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School of Medicine