Survivorship and Radiographic Analysis of Highly Porous Acetabular Cups Designed for Improved Osseointegration Potential
INTRODUCTION: A variety of highly porous materials have been used to obtain biological acetabular fixation after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Due to their improved surface-coated properties, new highly porous titanium metal implants have shown potential to promote prosthesis osseointegration. Therefore, the purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate: 1) overall acetabular cup survivorship; 2) postoperative complications; and 3) radiographic signs of loosening and radiolucencies in patients who received a new highly porous titanium metal cup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 81 patients who underwent primary THA and received a new porous acetabular cup between May 16, 2013 and January 27, 2016 at three academic centers were included for analysis. There were 40 women (49%) and 41 men (51%) who had a mean age of 65 years (range, 38 to 95 years) and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m2 (range, 16 to 43 kg/m2). The minimum follow up time was two years and seven months (range, 2 to 4 years). The cup was engineered with fully interconnected porosity designed for potential long-term biologic fixation. Medical records were reviewed to assess for any revision surgeries and postoperative complications, and the most recent radiographs were reviewed for signs of loosening or radiolucencies. RESULTS: Overall, acetabular component survivorship, free of fixation failure or aseptic loosening, was 100%. Two patients underwent revision due to dislocations; however, revisions were performed because no constrained or dual mobility liners were available for the shell at the time. Both patients had successful outcomes and were doing well at final follow up with no further episodes of dislocation. There was one open reduction internal fixation for a periprosthetic femoral fracture, and three polyethylene revisions were performed for instability. In all of these cases, the acetabular cup was retained. On radiographic evaluation of antero-posterior pelvis radiographs, there was one patient who had radiolucencies of <1mm in Zone 1 and Zone 2 at 15 months after>surgery, and another patient demonstrated radiolucencies of <1mm in Zone 2 and 3 at one-year follow up. At a minimum of two-year follow>up, both patients had non-progressive and stable findings. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated excellent survivorship, and there were no radiographic failures of this acetabular cup in primary total hip arthroplasty patients. Although two patients were found to have minimal (<1mm) radiolucencies, these were not progressive. Longer follow-up studies are needed to further assess the survivorship and outcomes of this new acetabular cup; however, based on the results of this study, these are expected to be favorable.