Evaluating the Validity of Risk Scoring in Predicting Pacemaker Rates following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

A. M. Spring, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
M. A. Catalano, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
V. Prasad, Northwell Health
B. Rutkin, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
E. Koss, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
A. Hartman, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
P. J. Yu, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell

Abstract

Copyright © 2020 Alexander M. Spring et al. Introduction: Requirement of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is a known and common postoperative consequence of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The Emory risk score has been recently developed to help risk stratify the need for PPM insertion in patients undergoing TAVR with SAPIEN 3 valves. Our aim was to assess the validity of this risk score in our patient population, as well as its applicability to patients receiving self-expanding valves. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 479 TAVR patients without preoperative pacemakers from November 2016 through December 2018. Preoperative risk factors included in the Emory risk score were collected for each patient: preoperative QRS, preoperative right bundle branch block (RBBB), preoperative syncope, and degree of valve oversizing. Multivariable analysis of the individual variables within the scoring system to identify predictors of PPM placement was performed. The predictive discrimination of the risk score for the risk of PPM placement after TAVR was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Our results demonstrated that, of the 479 patients analyzed, 236 (49.3%) received balloon-expandable valves and 243 (50.7%) received self-expanding valves. Pacemaker rates were higher in patients receiving self-expanding valves than those receiving balloon-expandable valves (25.1% versus 16.1%, p=0.018). The Emory risk score showed a moderate correlation with pacemaker requirement in patients receiving each valve type, with AUC for balloon-expandable and self-expanding valves of 0.657 and 0.645, respectively. Of the four risk score components, preoperative RBBB was the only predictor of pacemaker requirement with an AUC of 0.615 for both balloon-expandable and self-expanding valves. Conclusion. In our cohort, the Emory risk score had modest predictive utility for PPM insertion after balloon-expandable and self-expanding TAVR. The risk score did not offer better discriminatory utility than that of preoperative RBBB alone. Understanding the determinants of PPM insertion after TAVR can better guide patient education and postoperative management.