Safety and efficacy of magnetic anchoring electrode-assisted irreversible electroporation for gastric tissue ablation
© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Background: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging tissue ablation technique, which is safe for sites where thermal-basis techniques are not suitable. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of magnetic anchoring electrode (MAE)-assisted IRE for normal gastric tissue ablation in a rabbit model. Methods: IRE (500 V, 100 μs, 99 pulses, 1 Hz) of the gastric wall was performed in 24 adult New Zealand rabbits with a novel catheter-mounted MAE with fluoroscopy and a surgical approach. Procedure time, procedure-related bleeding, perforation, and other complications were recorded. Animals were sacrificed at 30 min, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days post-IRE. The stomach was removed en bloc, and the diameter of each lesion was measured. Histopathological analyses by Hematoxylin–Eosin (H&E), masson trichrome, alpha-smooth muscle action (α-SMA), and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) were performed. Results: Gastric tissue ablation with MAE-assisted IRE was successfully performed without any interruption. No perforation or bleeding was observed during IRE or throughout the follow-up period. A demarcated hemorrhage was found in the ablated area upon gross examination. H&E staining showed complete cell death with inflammatory infiltration, edema, and hemorrhaging. TUNEL presented diffuse positive cells in the ablated area. The tissue scaffold was well preserved without damage as indicated by Masson trichrome staining. Ulceration was observed starting from 3 days post-IRE. The mucosal layer was gradually recovered and regenerated within 14–28 days. No other complication was observed post-IRE. Conclusions: MAE-assisted IRE is safe and effective for normal gastric tissue ablation and the gastric wall recovered in 14–28 days post-IRE.