Differences in 24-h urine composition between nephrolithiasis patients with and without diabetes mellitus
OBJECTIVES: To examine the differences in 24-h urine composition between nephrolithiasis patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) in a large cohort of stone-formers and to examine differences in stone composition between patients with and without DM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 1117 patients with nephrolithiasis and a 24-h urine analysis was completed. Univariable analysis of 24-h urine profiles and multivariable linear regression models were performed, comparing patients with and without DM. A subanalysis of patients with stone analysis data available was performed, comparing the stone composition of patients with and without DM. RESULTS: Of the 1117 patients who comprised the study population, 181 (16%) had DM and 936 (84%) did not have DM at the time of urine analysis. Univariable analysis showed significantly higher total urine volume, citrate, uric acid (UA), sodium, potassium, sulphate, oxalate, chloride, and supersaturation (SS) of UA in individuals with DM (all P < 0.05). However, patients with DM had significantly lower SS of calcium phosphate and pH (all P < 0.05). Multivariable analysis showed that patients with DM had significantly lower urinary pH and SS of calcium phosphate, but significantly greater citrate, UA, sulphate, oxalate, chloride, SSUA, SS of calcium oxalate, and volume than patients without DM (all P < 0.05). Patients with DM had a significantly greater proportion of UA in their stones than patients without DM (50.2% vs 13.5%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: DM was associated with multiple differences on 24-h urine analysis compared with those without DM, including significantly higher UA and oxalate, and lower pH. Control of urinary UA and pH, as well as limiting intake of dietary oxalate may reduce stone formation in patients with DM.
Faculty, Northwell Researcher
School of Medicine; Northwell Health