Measurement of Spinopelvic Angles on Prone Intraoperative Long-Cassette Lateral Radiographs Predicts Postoperative Standing Global Alignment in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review from a single institution.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate intraoperative T1-pelvic angle (TPA), T4PA, and T9PA as predictors of postoperative global alignment after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Malalignment following adult spinal surgery is associated with disability and correlates with health-related quality of life. Preoperative planning and intraoperative verification are crucial for optimal postoperative outcomes. Currently, only pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) mismatch has been used to assess intraoperative correction.
METHODS: Patients undergoing ≥4-level spinal fusion with full-length pre-, intra-, and first postoperative calibrated radiographs were included from a single institution. Alignment measurements were obtained for sagittal vertical axis (SVA), PI-LL, TPA, T4PA, and T9PA. The whole cohort was divided into upper thoracic (UT: UIV > T7) and lower thoracic fusions (LT: UIV < T7). Change was assessed between phases, and a subanalysis was included for UT and LT groups to compare alignment changes for differing extent of proximal fusion in the sagittal plane.
RESULTS: Eighty patients (mean 63.4 years, 70% female, mean levels fused 11.9) underwent significant ASD correction (ΔPI-LL = 22.1°; ΔTPA = 13.8°). For all, intraoperative TPA, T4PA, and T9PA correlated with postoperative SVA (range, r = 0.41-0.59), whereas intraoperative PI-LL correlated less (r = 0.38). For UT (n = 49), all spinopelvic angles and LL were similar intraoperative to postoperatively (p > .09). For LT (n = 31), intraoperative and postoperative T9PA and LL were similar (p > .10) but TPA and T4PA differed (p < .02). For UT, all intraoperative and postoperative spinopelvic angles strongly correlated (r = 0.8-0.9). For LT, intraoperative to postoperative T9PA strongly correlated (r = 0.83) and TPA, T4PA, and LL correlated moderately (r = 0.65-0.70). LT trended toward more reciprocal kyphosis postoperatively (8.1° vs. 2.6°; p = .059).
CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative measurements of TPA, T4PA, and T9PA correlated better with postoperative global alignment than PI-LL, demonstrating their utility in confirming alignment goals. When comparing intraoperative to postoperative films, only T9PA was similar in LT whereas all spinopelvic angles were similar in UT. Reciprocal kyphosis in unfused segments of LT fusions may account for difference in TPA and T4PA from intraoperative to postoperative films.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.
School of Medicine