The Effect of Tissue Entrapment on Screw Loosening at the Implant/Abutment Interface of External- and Internal-Connection Implants: An In Vitro Study
PURPOSE: To compare the removal of torque values of machined implant abutment connections (internal and external) with and without soft tissue entrapment using an in vitro model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty external- and 30 internal-connection implants were embedded in urethane dimethacrylate. Porcine tissue was prepared and measured to thicknesses of 0.5 and 1.0 mm. Six groups (n = 10) were studied: External- and internal-connection implants with no tissue (control), 0.5, and 1.0 mm of tissue were entrapped at the implant/abutment interface. Abutments were inserted to 20 Ncm for all six groups. Insertion torque values were recorded using a digital torque gauge. All groups were then immersed in 1 M NaOH for 48 hours to dissolve tissue. Subsequent reverse torque measurements were recorded. Mean and standard deviation were determined for each group, and one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: All 60 specimens achieved a 20-Ncm insertion torque, despite tissue entrapment. Reverse torque measurements for external connection displayed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between all groups with mean reverse torque values for the control (13.71 +/- 1.4 Ncm), 0.5 mm (7.83 +/- 2.4 Ncm), and 1.0 mm tissue entrapment (2.29 +/- 1.4 Ncm) groups. Some statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between internal-connection groups. In all specimens, tissue did not completely dissolve after 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS: External-connection implants were significantly affected by tissue entrapment; the thicker the tissue, the lower the reverse torque values noted. Internal-connection implants were less affected by tissue entrapment.
Faculty, Northwell Researcher
School of Medicine; Northwell Health