Presentation and outcomes among inflammatory bowel disease patients with concurrent pneumatosis intestinalis: A case series and systematic review
© 2020 Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases. Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves chronic inflammation of the colon with ulcerative colitis (UC), and the colon and/or small intestine with Crohn's disease (CD). Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI), characterized by compromise of the intestinal wall with gas-filled cysts, has rarely been reported with IBD. The presentation, best management and outcomes of PI with IBD are poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a search for PI in all abdominal computed tomography (CT) reports at 2 large tertiary care hospitals from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2017, cross referenced to ICD codes for IBD. CT and chart review was performed to confirm PI and IBD respectively. A systematic review excluding case reports was performed for PI with IBD for comparison. Results: Of 5,990 patients with a CT abdomen report mentioning PI, we identified 11 cases of PI with IBD, 4 UC, 6 CD, and 1 indeterminate colitis. PI was limited to the small bowel in 5 patients, the right colon in 5, and small bowel and colonic in 1. All 3 mortalities had CD, small intestinal PI and portal/mesenteric venous gas. The systematic literature search identified 9 articles describing 58 patients with IBD and PI. These cases were mostly included in larger cohorts of PI patients without extractable data on presentation or outcomes in the IBD subpopulation. Conclusions: Ours appears to be the first reporting of presentations and outcomes, outside of case reports, for those with PI and IBD. The high mortality for those with CD and PI of the small bowel appears to define a group requiring more than supportive medical care.
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School of Medicine