Publication Date


Journal Title

TH Open


Introduction  The Perioperative Anticoagulation Use for Surgery Evaluation (PAUSE) Study assessed a standardized perioperative management strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation who were taking a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) and required an elective surgery or procedure. The aim of this substudy is to analyze the safety of this management strategy across different patient subgroups, according to four presurgical variables: (1) DOAC type and dose, (2) surgery/procedure bleed risk, (3) patient renal function, and (4) age. Methods  Clinical outcomes analyzed included major bleeding (MB), arterial thromboembolism, any bleeding, and any thromboembolism. We used descriptive statistics to summarize clinical outcomes, where the frequency, proportion, and 95% confidence interval were reported. Fisher's exact tests were used for testing the hypothesis of independence between the clinical outcome and patient characteristic, where the test p -values were reported. Results  There were 3,007 patients with atrial fibrillation requiring perioperative DOAC management. There was no significant difference in bleeding or thromboembolic outcomes according to DOAC type/dose regimen, renal function, or patient age. The rate of MB was significantly higher with high bleed risk procedures than low bleed risk procedures in apixaban-treated patients (2.9 vs. 0.59%; p  < 0.01), but not in dabigatran-treated patients (0.88 vs. 0.91%; p  = 1.0) or rivaroxaban-treated patients (2.9 vs. 1.3%; p  = 0.06). The risk for thromboembolism did not differ according to surgery/procedure-related bleed risk. Conclusion  Our results suggest that in DOAC-treated patients who received standardized perioperative management, surgical bleed risk is an important determinant of bleeding but not thromboembolic outcomes, although this finding was not consistent across all DOACs. There were no differences in bleeding and thromboembolism according to DOAC type and dose, renal function, or age.

Volume Number


Issue Number



e255 - e262

Document Type



Faculty; Northwell Resident


School of Medicine; Northwell Health

Primary Department

General Internal Medicine