Title

Paraproteinemic Keratopathy The Expanding Diversity of Clinical and Pathologic Manifestations

Publication Date

2015

Journal Title

Ophthalmology

Abstract

Purpose: To describe 7 patients with paraproteinemic keratopathy and to highlight the clinical and pathologic diversity of this rare entity and the importance of timely, systemic evaluation. Design: Retrospective, multicenter collaborative case series. Participants: Seven patients with paraproteinemic keratopathy. Methods: Clinical and pathologic records were reviewed to identify patients with well-documented corneal immunoglobulin deposits. Detailed ophthalmologic and medical histories were assembled. In 6 patients, corneal tissue was evaluated histochemically and immunohistochemically; in selected cases, corneal tissue was evaluated by in situ hybridization and ultrastructurally. Main Outcome Measures: Visual acuity and anterior segment examination at presentation and follow-up; local therapy; systemic diagnosis and management; and histopathologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and ultrastructural findings. Results: Seven patients were identified with corneal immunoglobulin deposition. In addition to previously reported crystalline, nummular, patch-like, and lattice-like corneal opacities, prominent corneal vascularization was present in 2 patients mimicking interstitial keratitis and limbal stem cell deficiency. All patients had evidence of paraproteinemia in a setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering plasma cell myeloma, or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Corneal findings were the first manifestation of systemic disease in 4 patients, and the diagnosis was not suspected in 3 of these patients. Pathologic evaluation of biopsied corneal and conjunctival tissues demonstrated immunoglobulin deposits. Previously unreported ultrastructural patterns in the cornea were noted: large scroll-like immunotactoid deposits, immune complex-like deposits, and randomly arranged fibrils morphologically intermediate between amyloid and immunotactoid deposits. Surgical intervention to improve vision was performed in 4 patients, with recurrence of deposits in 3 patients. Three patients underwent systemic therapy with diminution of the deposits and improvement in vision in 1 patient. Conclusions: The clinical and pathologic expressions of corneal immunoglobulin deposits are protean and present a diagnostic challenge. Early recognition of this rare entity is important to address the potentially serious associated systemic disease. (C) 2015 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Volume Number

122

Issue Number

9

Pages

1748-1756

Document Type

Article

EPub Date

2015/06/30

Status

Faculty; Northwell Researcher

Facility

School of Medicine; Northwell Health

Primary Department

Ophthalmology

PMID

26118999

DOI

10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.05.029