Peau d'orange and angioid streaks: manifestations of Bruch membrane pathology
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize peau d'orange and angioid streaks, characteristic findings in eyes of patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, by examining fundus photography and optical coherence tomography imaging. METHODS: Color photographs were evaluated directly as were the component red and green channels. Optical coherence tomography images were evaluated for reflectivity pattern of the band corresponding to the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch membrane complex. RESULTS: Eighteen eyes of 9 patients with a mean age of 48.7 years (range, 31-61 years) were examined; 7 of them were women. Color photographs showed areas of yellowish opacification that obscured visualization of the underlying choroid. At the outer edges of this confluent area, opacification were nonconfluent changes with similar appearance and these regions were typical peau d'orange. Angioid streaks occurred within and extended up to the outer border of the confluent opacification. Underlying choroidal details could be seen through the regions of peau d'orange and through the gaps in angioid streaks. The red channel image showed increased reflectivity from the confluent deposit and improved visualization of the choroidal vasculature, except where the confluent opacification was located. Optical coherence tomography imaging showed increased reflectivity from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch membrane complex. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the confluent region is the relevant lesion, not the subconfluent zone known as peau d'orange. Imaging characteristics of the confluent area of opacity are consistent with diffuse infiltration with calcium, a chief histologic abnormality of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. The name coquille d'oeuf was suggested for the confluent area of opacity as a consequence.