Closing perforations and postperforation management in endoscopy: duodenal, biliary, and colorectal
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am
Early recognition of adverse events arising from endoscopy is essential. In some cases the injury can be viewed clearly during the procedure, and immediate action should be taken to repair the defect endoscopically if feasible. If perforation is unclear, imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Surgical intervention is not always necessary; however, a surgical consultation for backup is essential. Selective cases can be managed conservatively or endoscopically with successful outcomes. Early recognition and intervention, input from specialist colleagues, and communication with the patient and family are keys to successfully managing the event.