Pharmacological inhibition of MIF interferes with trophoblast cell migration and invasiveness
INTRODUCTION: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is expressed by villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast. This study was aimed to investigate functional relevance of MIF for human trophoblast. METHODS: MIF mRNA and protein were documented in cytotrophoblast (CT) and extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo by RT-PCR, Western blot (WB), and immunocytochemistry. Recombinant human MIF (rhMIF), or its specific inhibitor (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) were used in Wound healing migration and Matrigel invasion tests. Potential effectors, integrin subunits and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were studied using WB and gelatin zymography, respectively. RESULTS: Blocking endogenous MIF by ISO-1 decreased HTR-8/SVneo cell migration dose dependently, most significantly with 200 mug/ml to 65% of control. Supplementation with rhMIF induced a significant stimulation to 129% of control with 200 ng/ml. In CT cell invasion test, ISO-1 at 200 mug/ml reduced invasion to 59% of control, while rhMIF (200 ng/ml) induced stimulation to 159% of control. In HTR-8/SVneo cells, invasion was significantly inhibited by ISO-1 to 40%, and increased to 150% of control by rhMIF (200 ng/ml). Integrin alpha1 was reduced by ISO-1 in both cell types, while integrins alpha5 and beta1 were not changed. Addition of rhMIF increased integrin alpha1. In the presence of ISO-1, levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were reduced in CT and HTR-8/SVneo, while rhMIF stimulated MMP-2 in CT and MMP-9 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. CONCLUSION: Reported findings provide the first insight into the cellular effects of MIF in human trophoblast, which acts to promote cell migration and invasion.
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