Neuroradiological and Neuropathological Changes After 177Lu-Octreotate Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy of Refractory Esthesioneuroblastoma.
Olfactory neuroblastoma, also known as esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), is a malignant neoplasm with an unpredictable behavior. Currently, the widely accepted treatment is inductive chemotherapy, with or without surgery, followed by radiotherapy. Since data on genetics and molecular alterations of ENB are lacking, there is no standard molecularly targeted therapy. However, ENB commonly expresses the somatostatin receptor (SSTR) that is also expressed by neuroendocrine tumors. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues, such as 177Lu-octreotate, is an effective treatment for the latter. We present the complex neuroradiological and neuropathological changes associated with 177Lu-octreotate treatment of a patient with a highly treatment-resistant ENB.A 60-yr-old male presented with an ENB that recurred after chemotherapy, surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and immunotherapy. Pathology revealed a Hyams grade 3 ENB and the tumor had metastasized to lymph nodes. Tumor SSTR expression was seen on 68Ga-octreotate positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), suggesting that PRRT may be an option. He received 4 cycles of 177Lu-octreotate over 6 mo, with a partial response of all lesions and symptomatic improvement. Four months after the last PRRT cycle, 2 of the lesions rapidly relapsed and were successfully resected. Three months later, 68Ga-octreotate PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging indicate no progression of the disease.We describe imaging changes associated with 177Lu-octreotate PRRT of relapsing ENB. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing neuropathological changes associated with this treatment. PRRT is a promising therapeutic option to improve the disease control, and potentially, the survival of patients with refractory ENB.
Faculty; Northwell Resident
School of Medicine; Northwell Health
Otolaryngology; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; Radiology