Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome by the Numbers: Transient Focal Neurological Deficit, Imaging-Proven Focal Hyperperfusion, and High Graft Flow Rate Following Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery bypass in a Patient With Symptomatic Carotid Occlusion-Case Report.
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a well-known complication of superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. While this argues against "low flow" in the bypass construct, flow rates in the graft have not been previously quantified in the setting of CHS.A 58-yr-old man presented with recurrent left hemispheric ischemic strokes and fluctuating right hemiparesis and aphasia. Vascular imaging revealed left cervical internal carotid artery occlusion and perfusion imaging confirmed left hemispheric hypoperfusion. After failing to respond to maximal medical therapy, the patient underwent single-barrel STA-MCA bypass. Postoperatively, his symptoms resolved and blood pressure (BP) was strictly controlled within normal range. However, 2 d later, he developed severe expressive aphasia. CTA demonstrated a patent bypass graft and SPECT showed focal hyperperfusion in Broca's speech area. Seizure activity was ruled out. A high graft flow rate of 52 mL/min was documented by quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Thus, the diagnosis of CHS was made and managed with strict BP control. The patient exhibited complete recovery of speech over a period of days and was discharged home. Repeat SPECT at 4 mo showed resolution of hyperperfusion and quantitative MRA demonstrated reduction of graft flow rate to 34 mL/min.This is the first case of perfusion imaging-proven CHS after STA-MCA bypass, where high graft flow rates are objectively documented. Our observations constitute irrefutable evidence challenging the classic belief that the STA-MCA bypass is a low-flow construct.
Faculty; Northwell Researcher; Northwell Resident
School of Medicine; Northwell Health