Cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: New data and an updated meta-analysis
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Few studies have been conducted examining cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients compared to healthy volunteers. The goals of this study were: 1) to report original data detailing cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 10 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) diagnosis and 10 healthy controls and 2) to conduct a meta-analysis of the available data on cytokine levels in the CSF of patients with SSD compared to healthy controls, including our new data. Cytokine concentrations were measured using the Q-plex Human Cytokine Screen array in CSF of 10 patients with SSD and 10 healthy volunteers. For the meta-analysis, an electronic PubMed and Google Scholar search without restrictions was conducted for articles that reported on cytokine levels in CSF in patients with an SSD compared to healthy controls. Our original data revealed statistically significant increases in levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in the CSF of patients with an SSD compared to healthy volunteers. Our meta-analysis showed statistically significant increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in patients compared to healthy volunteers. Effect sizes between treated and untreated patients for IL-6 were of similar magnitude. However, IL-6 levels were higher in early stage schizophrenia patients compared to chronic schizophrenia patients. Studies with larger sample sizes, comprehensive assessments and ideally in the context of a randomized controlled intervention to minimize the impact of confounding factors are needed to fully understand the role of cytokines and inflammatory markers in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia.
School of Medicine
General Internal Medicine; Molecular Medicine