Nanoparticles having amphiphilic silane containing Chlorin e6 with strong anti-biofilm activity against periodontitis-related pathogens
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Objectives: The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop the multifunctional nanoparticles containing Chlorin e6 (Ce6), Coumarin 6 (C6) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs); and (2) investigate the inhibitory effects of the nanoparticles via antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against three species of periodontitis-related pathogens for the first time. Materials and methods: Ce6 and C6 were co-loaded into the Fe3O4-silane core-shell structure to form multifunctional nanoparticles (denoted “Fe3O4-silane@Ce6/C6 MNPs”). The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles were characterized. Biofilm properties of Streptococcus sanguinis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were tested. Colony-forming units (CFU), live/dead assay, and metabolic activity of biofilms were determined to evaluate the aPDT function mediated by the Fe3O4-silane@Ce6/C6 MNPs. Fluorescence imaging and the targeted antibacterial effects were also investigated. Results: Fe3O4-silane@Ce6/C6 MNPs showed superparamagnetic properties, chemical stability and water-solubility, with no cytotoxicity. Fe3O4 NPs did not compromise the emission peaks of C6 and Ce6. The Fe3O4-silane@Ce6/C6-mediated aPDT had much greater reduction in biofilms than the control groups (p < 0.05). Biofilm CFU was reduced by about 4–5 orders of magnitude via Fe3O4-silane@Ce6/C6-mediated aPDT. The co-loading of Ce6 and C6 enabled the real-time aPDT monitoring by ratio emissions with the same wavelength. Fe3O4 with magnetic field enabled the targeting of infection sites by killing bacteria via magnetic field. Conclusion: The multifunctional nanoparticles exerted strong anti-biofilm activity against periodontitis-related pathogens, with excellent biocompatibility, real-time monitoring, and magnetically-targeting capacities. The multifunctional nanoparticles have great potential in antibacterial applications to inhibit the occurrence and progression of periodontitis.
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School of Medicine