Point-of-care ultrasound for the pediatric regional anesthesiologist and pain specialist: a technique review.
Reg Anesth Pain Med
Point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) has been well described for adult perioperative patients; however, the literature on children remains limited. Regional anesthesiologists have gained interest in expanding their clinical repertoire of PoCUS from regional anesthesia to increasing numbers of applications. This manuscript reviews and highlights emerging PoCUS applications that may improve the quality and safety of pediatric care.In infants and children, lung and airway PoCUS can be used to identify esophageal intubation, size airway devices such as endotracheal tubes, and rule in or out a pulmonary etiology for clinical decompensation. Gastric ultrasound can be used to stratify aspiration risk when nil-per-os compliance and gastric emptying are uncertain. Cardiac PoCUS imaging is useful to triage causes of undifferentiated hypotension or tachycardia and to determine reversible causes of cardiac arrest. Cardiac PoCUS can assess for pericardial effusion, gross ventricular systolic function, cardiac volume and filling, and gross valvular pathology. When PoCUS is used, a more rapid institution of problem-specific therapy with improved patient outcomes is demonstrated in the pediatric emergency medicine and critical care literature.Overall, PoCUS saves time, expedites the differential diagnosis, and helps direct therapy when used in infants and children. PoCUS is low risk and should be readily accessible to pediatric anesthesiologists in the operating room.
School of Medicine