Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Strokes due to Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis.
Background: We report a case of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes occurring almost simultaneously in a patient diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) previously known as Churg-Strauss vasculitis. To our knowledge, this is the first known case. Methods: A 59-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of bilateral leg weakness, difficulty ambulating, and dyesthesias. While in the hospital, he developed acute right hand weakness, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple, bilateral ischemic infarcts. After a few days, he acutely became unresponsive and was found to have a large left frontal hematoma and underwent emergent hematoma evacuation. His weakness was unexplained by the infarcts based on location and so a peripheral process was suspected. Results: Nerve conduction studies showed severe axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. A sural nerve biopsy showed necrotizing vasculitis, consistent with EGPA. Conclusions: EGPA is the rarest of the antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody vasculitides. The peripheral nervous system is frequently involved, but the central nervous system can also be affected. The vasculitis damages the vessel walls, which leads either to stenosis or to dilatation, resulting in ischemic or bleeding consequences which can occur simultaneously, such as in this case. Caution should be exercised when prescribing antiplatelet therapy to such patients.
Faculty, Northwell Researcher, Northwell Resident
School of Medicine; Northwell Health