Am J Ophthalmol
PURPOSE: To investigate genetic, environmental, and systemic risk factors in prospectively identified subjects with the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotypes of (1) reticular pseudodrusen without large soft drusen and (2) large soft drusen without reticular pseudodrusen. DESIGN: Prospective case-case comparison. METHODS: In a clinical practice setting, patients with AMD were sequentially screened using clinical examination and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging to prospectively identify subjects (n = 73) with the phenotypes of (1) reticular pseudodrusen without large soft drusen (n = 30) or (2) large soft drusen without reticular pseudodrusen (n = 43). Subjects were genotyped for 2 alleles associated with AMD, age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) and complement factor H (CFH). A questionnaire was administered to collect history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, as well as personal and family history of AMD. RESULTS: The reticular pseudodrusen group was older (median age 87 vs 81 years, P = .04) and had more female subjects (83.3% vs 48.8%, P = .003), later ages of AMD onset (83 vs 70 years, P = .0005), and a greater frequency of hypertension (76.7% vs 55.8%, P = .08). No significant differences were found in the distribution of the ARMS2 risk allele (P = .4) between the reticular pseudodrusen (homozygous = 20.0%; heterozygous = 56.7%) and large soft drusen (homozygous = 19.0%; heterozygous = 42.9%) phenotypes, or in the distribution of the CHF risk allele (P = .7) between the reticular pseudodrusen (homozygous = 26.7%; heterozygous = 56.7%) and large soft drusen (homozygous = 21.4%; heterozygous = 66.7%) phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The reticular pseudodrusen phenotype was associated with increased age, later age of AMD onset, and female sex.
Faculty, Northwell Researcher
School of Medicine; Northwell Health