100% Response Rate to Galcanezumab in Patients With Episodic Migraine: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Results From Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled EVOLVE-1 and EVOLVE-2 Studies.
OBJECTIVE:To characterize adult patients with episodic migraine who achieved 100% response to galcanezumab treatment. BACKGROUND:Galcanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and has demonstrated efficacy in reducing migraine headache days (MHD) in patients with episodic and chronic migraine. METHODS:A post hoc analysis of the proportion of patients with 100% response (100% reduction from baseline in monthly MHD) was calculated for each month from pooled data of 2 double-blind, 6-month galcanezumab studies in patients with episodic migraine (4 to 14 MHD and ≥2 migraine attacks per month at baseline). The patients were randomized (1:1:2) to monthly subcutaneous galcanezumab, 120 mg (after 240 mg initial loading dose) or 240 mg, or placebo. A generalized linear mixed model with effects for baseline MHD, treatment, month, and treatment-by-month interaction was used to estimate the mean monthly response rate. RESULTS:The analysis included 1739 patients treated with galcanezumab, 120 mg (n = 436) or 240 mg (n = 428), or placebo (n = 875). The mean monthly 100% response rate on an average month in the 6-month double-blind phase was greater for galcanezumab 120 mg (13.5%) and 240 mg (14.3%) groups vs placebo (5.9%) with odds ratios of 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9, 3.2) and 2.6 (95% CI 2.0, 3.4), respectively (P < .001). The rate of 100% monthly response increased at each month over the 6-month double-blind phase with higher rates for galcanezumab dose groups (9 to 21%) than placebo (2 to 10%) (P < .02). Evaluation of 100% response by the number of months showed a greater proportion of galcanezumab-treated patients in either dose group, compared to placebo, were able to achieve a 100% response (P < .001 up to 3 months); however, though greater than placebo, few galcanezumab patients had ≥4 months of 100% response (P < .02). The proportions of patients with 100% response were greatest in the last 3 months of the treatment. Considering the average number days between nonconsecutive MHD across the 6-month period (not just during the times of 100% response), the duration of migraine headache-free periods in the galcanezumab groups was 29 days for those with at least 1 month of 100% response and 55 days for those with at least 3 months of 100% response. This gap was approximately 6 to 11 times greater than the mean gap of 5 days observed at baseline. CONCLUSIONS:More than a third of the patients with episodic migraine treated with galcanezumab 120 mg or 240 mg achieved 100% response for at least 1 month. More patients had 100% monthly response in the last 3 months of the 6-month double-blind period. For those with 100% response for at least 1 month, the average time between nonconsecutive MHD for the entire treatment period was nearly 1 month and approached 2 months for patients with 3 or more months of 100% response.
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School of Medicine