Benefits and Challenges of Lung Cancer Screening in Older Adults
© 2018 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. Purpose: Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography has been shown to significantly reduce lung cancer–related mortality in high-risk patients. However, patients diagnosed with lung cancer are typically older and often have multiple age- and smoking-related comorbidities. As a result, cancer screening in older adults remains a complex decision, requiring careful consideration of patients’ risk characteristics and life expectancy to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks of screening. In this review, we evaluate the evidence regarding lung cancer screening, with a focus on older patients. Methods: PubMed was searched to identify relevant studies evaluating the clinical outcomes of lung cancer screening. The key words used in our search included non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), screening, older, comorbidities, computed tomography, and survival. While we primarily looked for articles specific to older patients, we also focused on subgroup analysis in older patients in larger studies. Finally, we reviewed all relevant guidelines regarding lung cancer screening. Findings: Guidelines recommend that lung cancer screening be considered in adults aged 55 to 80 years who are at high risk based on smoking history (ie, 30-pack–year smoking history; having smoked within the past 15 years). Patients who fit these criteria have been shown to have a 20% reduction in lung cancer–related mortality with the use of low-dose computed tomography versus chest radiography. High rates of false-positive results and potential overdiagnoses were also observed. Therefore, screening is generally not recommended in adults with severe comorbidities or short life expectancy, who may experience limited benefit and higher risks with screening. However, several studies have shown a benefit with continued lung cancer screening with appropriate selection of older individuals at the highest risk and with the lowest comorbidities. Implications: Older patients experience the highest risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality, and stand to be the most likely to benefit from lung cancer screening. However, careful consideration must be given to higher rates of false-positives and overdiagnosis in this population, as well as tolerability of surgery and competing risks for death from other causes. The appropriate selection of older individuals for lung cancer screening can be greatly optimized by using validated risk-based targeting.
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School of Medicine
Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology and Prevention