Emerging Concepts in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation–Associated Renal Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Prospects for New Treatments
Am J Kidney Dis
© 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT-TMA) is a well-recognized complication of HSCT that has a high risk for death. Even in patients who survive, HSCT-TMA is associated with long-term morbidity and chronic organ injury. HSCT-TMA is a multisystem disease that often affects the kidneys. Renal manifestations of HSCT-TMA include reduced glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and hypertension. Understanding of the pathophysiology of HSCT-TMA has expanded in the last decade. Endothelial injury plays a major role. Recent studies also suggest involvement of complement activation. HSCT-TMA has also been considered by some to be an endothelial variant of graft-versus-host disease. Understanding the pathophysiology of HSCT-TMA and its association with activation of the complement system may aid in developing novel therapeutic options. In this review, we summarize current knowledge focusing on epidemiology and prognosis, evidence of complement activation, and endothelial injury; the possible link to graft-versus-host disease; and treatment options for HSCT-TMA.
School of Medicine