World Neurosurg X
© 2019 The Authors Objective: Strategies to improve traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes in India are ill defined. The objective of this study was to examine baseline prehospital (PH) factors associated with outcomes from the Andhra Pradesh Traumatic Brain Injury Project. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of adult patients with TBI admitted to the primary referral hospital. Modes of injury, prehospital care and transport, and factors associated with increased in-hospital mortality were evaluated. Poisson regression with robust error variance and adjusted attributable risk percent estimates determined factors associated with outcomes. Results: A total of 447 adults (38% with mild TBI, 30% with moderate TBI, and 32% with severe TBI; 81% men) with isolated TBI (89%) from road traffic accidents (48.1%) or falls (46.5%) were enrolled. Of the patients, 45.7% were transported by ambulance, 61% had scalp/facial bleeding, 11% had respiratory distress, and 7% had cervical spine stabilization. Of these, 25.3% died and 34% had unfavorable outcomes. Among 335 direct admits, 45% traveled more than 50 km and nearly 20% traveled more than 100 km. Bleeding was associated with higher mortality (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–2.31) and unfavorable outcome (aRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.18–2.17). Of the patients, 45 (31%) with severe TBI received PH airway management prior to definitive treatment, and respiratory distress was associated with unfavorable discharge outcomes (aRR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00–1.51). Conclusions: Patients with TBI often received treatment far away from injury, bypassing closer hospitals. Scalp/facial bleeding was common and associated with unfavorable outcomes. Ambulance use was infrequent, and few patients received PH airway management, hemorrhage control, or cervical spine stabilization when needed.
School of Medicine