Modern Treatment Trends and Outcomes of Pulmonary Embolism With and Without Hemodynamic Significance

Publication Date


Journal Title

Ann Thorac Surg


© 2020 Background: Pulmonary embolism is common, but the benefit of surgical embolectomy remains unclear. National trends in embolectomy have been described to 2008. Recent data are lacking. We characterized the national trends in incidence, management, and outcomes of pulmonary embolisms, along with the population-level outcomes. Methods: The National Inpatient Sample was queried by International Classification of Diseases-9th Revision codes for pulmonary embolisms from 2011 to 2014. Saddle embolisms, shock, and interventions, including systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and pulmonary embolectomy, were identified. Predictors of in-hospital death were identified by logistic regression. Results: We identified 1,283,063 embolism records, including 34,040 (2.6%) with saddle embolism, 31,057 (2.4%) with shock, and 1768 (0.14%) had saddle embolism with shock. Embolectomy and catheter-directed therapies were associated with reduced death in saddle embolism with shock (n = 1768; embolectomy: odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.48; catheter-directed therapies: OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.96). Systemic thrombolytics were not associated with a in-hospital death difference (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 60.87-1.38). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with increased death (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.09-3.92). The number needed to treat for in-hospital death of saddle embolisms with shock was 4.7 (95% CI, 3.9-6.9). Conclusions: In this contemporary nationally representative sample, surgical embolectomy and catheter-directed therapies were associated reduced in-hospital death for saddle pulmonary embolism with shock, and systemic thrombolytics were not associated with in-hospital death.

Document Type



Faculty; Northwell Resident; SOM Student


School of Medicine; Northwell Health

Primary Department

Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery





For the public and Northwell Health campuses