Examining the Associations Between Immigration Status and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women
J Community Health
© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Stress is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. In the United States (U.S.), little is known about perceived stress and associated factors among HIV-infected and immigrant women. Here, we examine these associations within a sample of 305 HIV-infected and uninfected, U.S.-born and non-U.S.-born women who were part of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) at three sites (New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles). Perceived stress was measured using the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10); HIV infection was serologically confirmed, and nativity status was self-reported. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify associations with perceived stress. The majority of participants were U.S.-born (232, 76.1%) and were HIV-infected (212, 68.5%). Mutlivariable analyses found the odds of perceived stress to be lower for those employed [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.15–0.63)], with high levels of social support (AOR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.26–0.79), and HIV-infected (AOR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.79). Perceived stress was positively associated with living in unstable housing (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.17–5.51). Here, immigration status was not associated with perceived stress. We identified stress to be higher among women who were unemployed, unstably housed, or who had low social support. Community-based programs should tailor interventions to include stress reduction strategies for participants with identified risk factors to improve mental and physical health outcomes.
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School of Medicine
Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology and Prevention