Depression, anxiety disorders, and metabolic syndrome in a population at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus
Brain and Behavior
Background: Depressive symptoms have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but less is known about anxiety disorders that can be comorbid or exist without depression. Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in subjects consecutively examined at an outpatient clinic for diabetes prevention who were at-risk for T2DM, defined by FINDRISK scores, and compared metabolic syndrome (MetS) frequencies between subjects with and without psychiatric morbidity, entering also relevant variables for MetS into multivariate analyses. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed using a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results: Of 260 consecutively screened subjects, 150 (56.9 +/- 8.1 years old, males = 56.7%, BMI = 27.2 +/- 4.1kg/m(2)) were at-risk for T2DM and were included. MetS, present in 27% of males and 25% of females, was significantly associated with having a current anxiety disorder (P < 0.001) and lifetime major depression (P < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, MetS was significantly associated with lifetime major depression, presence of any anxiety disorder, body weight, and physical activity. Conclusions: Our data in a high-risk group for T2DM support the association between depressive disorders and MetS, pointing to a similar role of anxiety disorders. Screening for anxiety and depression is recommended in this group at risk for T2DM.
School of Medicine
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